Tuesday, 18 March 2014

Dharma according to 4th century Vatsyayana

Dharma according to 4th century Vatsyayana 

According to Klaus Klostermaier, 4th century Hindu scholar Vātsyāyana explained dharma by contrasting it with adharma.

Vātsyāyana suggested that Dharma is not merely in one’s actions, but also in words one speaks or writes, and in thought

According to Vātsyāyana

Adharma of body:
 himsa (violence), steya (steal, theft), pratisiddha maithuna (sexual indulgence with someone other than one’s partner)
Dharma of body
 dana (charity), paritrana (succor of the distressed) and paricarana (rendering service to others)

Adharma from words one speaks or writes:
mithya (falsehood), parusa (caustic talk), sucana (calumny) and asambaddha (absurd talk)
Dharma from words one speaks or writes:

satya (truth and facts), hitavacana (talking with good intention), priyavacana (gentle, kind talk), svadhyaya (recitation of scriptures)

Adharma of mind:

paradroha (ill will to anyone), paradravyabhipsa (covetousness), nastikya (denial of the existence of morals and religiosity)
Dharma of mind:

daya (compassion), asprha (disinterestedness), and sraddha (faith in others)

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